A 2012 law, which demanded that foreign-financed NGOs and other international organisations that engaged in political activities register as “foreign agents” was further amended in 2014 to authorise the Justice Ministry to register “undesirable groups” as “foreign agents”, even without their consent.71 This law effectively cracks down on civil society, including groups combatting modern slavery and providing support services for victims. Additionally, 1,473 individuals were prosecuted, and 1,196 individuals were convicted for trafficking or trafficking-related offences in 2015. The conflict in the eastern part of the neighbouring Ukraine has increased the risk of cross-border trafficking and forced labour due to war, displacement, and economic crisis.48 Ukraine has one of the largest diasporas in the world, with the major share residing in Russia.49 Russia was one of the most popular destination countries for Ukrainian migrants seeking work abroad in 2014-15 despite the conflict, with 2.5 million Ukrainian citizens registered in Russia.50 The main destination country of all Ukrainian victims of human trafficking who were provided with IOM assistance between 2010 and 2015 was Russian.51 A survey commissioned by the IOM also found that the percentage of Ukrainians who would agree to precarious offers regarding working abroad increased from 14 percent in 2011 to 21 percent in 2015.52 This may reflect a worsening economic situation and increasing conflict in the Ukraine. WikiRate has developed an open access research platform that allows anyone to systematically gather and report publicly available information on corporate Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) practices. Russia imports 85 percent of its sugarcane from Brazil, totalling US$ 321.8 million in value. The Salvation Army believes in the biblical principles of the inherent and equal value of all persons and the duty to care for one’s neighbour. A purposive sample of criminal history data of all Vietnamese nationals arrested for cannabis cultivation offences in Surrey/Sussex in the 3 years to 2017 (N = 19) … However, there were kholop… While the use of slave labour is criminalised under article 127.2 and article 127.1 mentions slave labour as a type of exploitation as part of the crime of human trafficking, the act of slavery itself is not distinctly criminalised.58 Articles 240 and 241 address recruitment into sex work and pimping.59 In relation to the alleged exploitation of migrant workers from North Korea on the construction site for the St Petersburg stadium for the 2018 S… This figure is according to the Walk Free Foundation’s 2014 Global Slavery Index, which defines modern slavery as any... 3. Implement legislation which requires government agencies to minimise the risk of using businesses suspected of using forced labour or purchasing products that were made using forced labour. By making corporate responsibility data accessible, comparable and free for all, the organisation aims to provide society with the tools it needs to encourage companies to respond to social and environmental challenges. Establish specialised shelters for victims of modern slavery, and provide training for all social workers so they might provide specialised care to victims. Produkty grocery store lawsuit (re modern slavery in Russia) In 2009, a former employee of grocery store chain Produkty filed a criminal complaint in Russia alleging she had been forced to work under slavery like conditions for two years. several incidents of labor exploitation around stadium construction preceding Russia’s World Cup this summer. Although prisoners’ working conditions are technically covered by general labour laws, the voluntary consent of the prisoner to perform such work is not required. For example, in 2017, brutal campaigns against gay men in Chechnya reportedly led to abduction, forced disappearances, torture, and deaths by authorities.40. “Trafficking in persons,” “human trafficking,” and “modern slavery” are used as umbrella terms to refer to both sex trafficking and compelled labor. L. 106-386), as amended (TVPA), and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention […] The Moscow Times’ team of journalists has been first with the big stories on the coronavirus crisis in Russia since day one. There is an agreement between Russia and FSU countries on combating slavery, and it runs until 2013, but all it does is state the fact that Russia is unique in term of slave labour. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre 2018. Investigate reports of official complicity into trafficking and related modern slavery crimes. The data is taken from the BACI 2015 dataset (available from: http://www.cepii.fr/cepii/en/bdd_modele/presentation.asp?id=1). International Organization for Migration, Mission in Ukraine, 2016. Stulov, M 2016, ‘Russian Justice System to Reintroduce Forced Labor in 2017’. Forty million victims of modern slavery in 2016: report. 96-FZ of April 23, 2018 On Amending Article 53-1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation].Available from: http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/42974. Slavery in modern Russia. They are often forced to work under threat but rarely denounce their conditions for fear of deportation or retaliation. Our full Modern Slavery Act Transparency Statement can be found here. The large majority of Russia’s migrant workers are irregular migrants41 – a status that can make them particularly vulnerable to modern slavery. Fish imports from China make up the by far largest share of these fish imports (nearly US$ 178 million). Women and girls make up more than seven in 10 of the world’s modern slavery victims, with nearly 30 million female victims worldwide, major new research shows. More will suffer if we don’t act’. “[E]ven in countries with seemingly strong laws and systems, there are critical gaps in protections for groups such as irregular migrants, the homeless, workers in the shadow or gig economy and certain minorities,” it said. A Xenophobia, intolerance, and negative attitudes toward migrant workers,37 asylum seekers38 and marginalised groups, such as the LGBTQI community,39 exposes these populations to increased risk of exploitation and abuse in Russia. Companies subject to the Act are now required to publish an anti-slavery statement as soon as possible (and within a maximum of six months) of the end of their financial year which falls on or after March 31, 2016. She alleged abuses ranging from forced labour, passport confiscation, and beatings. In 2019 the Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner (IASC) estimated there were 136,000 victims of modern slavery and human trafficking in the UK itself. In total, the report found an estimated 794,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in Russia. Slavery in modern Russia Slavery flourishes in Russian regions where a weak state, low salaries, and corrupt police make it profitable. The three died while investigating the Wagner mercenary group, which has been linked to Prigozhin. 3, Forced labour in Russia predominantly occurs in informal and less regulated industries.  > However, modern day slavery occurs around us every day. Forms of labour exploitation can be found in a variety of sectors, such as agriculture, construction, domestic work, begging, trash collection, and illegal logging.4 Forced labour involves migrant workers, who are either already in the country (including irregular migrants5), or foreign citizens who are brought to Russia for the purpose of exploitation.6 Migrant workers who fall victim to exploitation primarily originate from Central Asian countries (such as Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan), Ukraine, Vietnam, China, and North Korea.7, There were documented cases of exploitation of construction workers working on stadium sites for the 2018 FIFA Soccer World Cup.8 Research conducted by Human Rights Watch identified a range of abuses among these construction labourers, including non-payment and delayed payment of wages, as well as lack of employment contracts and other documentation required for legal employment.9 Workers also reported having to work outside in extremely cold temperatures and facing retaliation or threats for raising concerns about their labour conditions. Published. Modern Slavery. Implement raising awareness campaigns to highlight the discrimination that LGBTQI individuals face and arrest perpetrators of violence against LGBTBQI groups. Only one Russian company has to date released a statement under the requirements of the Act: VTB Capital,88 from the diversified financials sector. The remaining 29 percent are male. Policy-makers, businesses, and consumers must become aware of this risk and take responsibility for it. By. Adolescent victims of trafficking are placed in shelters for children in distress.76, Generally, victims are identified and referred by either NGOs or law enforcement on an ad hoc basis. The 10 countries with the largest estimated absolute numbers of people in modern slavery include some of the world’s most populous countries — India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Uzbekistan, North Korea, Russia, Nigeria, the … Thanks to a joint effort by anti-slavery groups, that veil of secrecy is beginning to be lifted. Establish behaviour change programs targeting patriarchal attitudes that facilitate the sexual exploitation and forced marriage of women and girls. Stepan Fomin 1 June 2015 Share this. Appoint a national coordination body to enable effective coordination and monitoring of measures to combat modern slavery and charge it with national and international reporting responsibility. The Russian government has put tougher restrictions on migrant workers in an attempt to cut the number of irregular migrant workers in the country. Slavery gradually disappeared from the Caucuses owing to reduced demand for Circassian slaves from the Ottoman Empire and Egypt, Russian imperial policy that used the issue of slaves to infringe upon Ottoman sovereignty, and the actions of the slaves themselves. There are concerns that this may also affect those North Koreans with refugee or asylum seeker status in Russia.69 In addition, the repatriation of North Korean migrant workers as a result of the sanctions under UN Security Council Resolution 239770 could expose those repatriated workers to exploitation in their home country. Higgins, A 2017, ‘North Korean’s in Russia Work ‘Basically in the Situation of Slaves’’. Sex trafficking is a global form of modern-day slavery in which individuals are coerced to perform commercial sex acts against their will. All statements analysed by the project can be found on the relevant business page at https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research. While ‘modern slavery’ is not a legal category per se, I use it as an umbrella term for the practices of human trafficking, slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour. Russian Alliance against CSEC & ECPAT International 2017. Modern slavery crimes may involve, or take place alongside, a wide range of abuses and other criminal offences such as grievous bodily harm, assault, rape or child sexual abuse. There are 40.3 million people enslaved across the world, according to the 2018 Global Slavery Index compiled by the Australia-based Walk Free Foundation. To tackle slave labor, Walk Free recommended for Russia to begin publishing statistics on victim numbers, grant asylum to North Korean laborers and minimize imports of goods made using forced labor. This refers to offences recorded under articles 120 (forced organ removal), 127.1 (trafficking in persons), 127.2 (slave labour), 240 and 241 (enticement into prostitution and pimping), 242.1 (production and circulation of material or objects with pornographic depiction of minors), and 242.2 (use of minors for the production of pornographic materials). According to data from the Walk Free Foundation, Russia enteredthe top ten countries in terms of absolute number of slaves. Sign and ratify the ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention No. ... India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, … June 13, 2020. The highest value at-risk products that may be produced using modern slavery and imported by Russia are laptops, computers, and mobile phones, and apparel. I learned about modern slavery by chance: in 2011, an acquaintance told Melnikov about “free workers” in a brick production in Dagestan. If they do not bring back a certain amount of money a day, they may be punished.17, Compulsory prison labour was re-introduced as a criminal punishment from January 2017.18 Under the current legislation, convicted prisoners may be forced to perform labour at state prisons or private companies. Kim, J & Macfie, N 2015, ‘U.N. Slavery in Russia ended in February 19th, 1861 when Russian Emperor Alexander II issued The Emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator . Based on this assessment, it is highly likely that many migrant workers utilized to build the World Cup facilities will not receive their wages. Sinelschikova, Y 2014, ‘Changes to migration regulations aim to legalize shadow workers’. For a detailed methodology of how these products were identified, please refer to Appendix 3 in the 2018 GSI report. According to their estimates, 794,000 people in … It is also unclear if the statement has been approved by the board. Read the entire report here. [2, https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/05/13/dispatches-will-russia-protect-child-bride, https://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/alexander-kondakov/putting-russia-s-homophobic-violence-on-map, https://www.amnesty.org/en/get-involved/take-action/chechnya-stop-abducting-and-killing-gay-men/, http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/119_wag_climate/page9.shtml, https://www.rferl.org/a/russia-migrants-history-tests/25420832.html, https://fpc.org.uk/russia-xenophobia-vulnerability-migrants-central-asia/, https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/community/2017/08/03/russia-xenophobia-and-profiting-from-migration-controls, https://www.ft.com/content/3aac3faa-1bb6-11e8-aaca-4574d7dabfb6, https://iwpr.net/global-voices/tajiks-face-new-obstacles-work-russia, http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/08/10/the-midnight-train-to-moscow-tajikistan-migration/, http://legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes/country/7. Reports of current Slavery. Modern day slavery relies on money. However, individuals will not be allowed to refuse or switch jobs once they are assigned to a role. The statement mentions that VTB Capital prohibits the use of modern slavery through specific requirements in its contracting processes. Oleg Melnikov, the leader of the Alternative, a youth anti-slave labor movement, is dressed like a homeless person, a look targeted by Russia’s modern slave traders. North Korea has the highest prevalence of modern slavery globally, with one in 10 of the population, or 2.6 million people, victims of modern slavery. Mapping modern slavery. The New Russian Empire: Modern Slavery in Russia 1. Since the publication of the 2016 Global Slavery Index, Russia has not implemented any law that requires private businesses to report on steps taken to reduce risk of forced labour in their supply chains. modern slavery is medium or higher risk, we issue a supplementary survey for completion. A bombshell was dropped in the New York Times, Die Welt, and the London Evening Standard this morning. The UK Modern Slavery Act Research project employs a crowdsourcing approach to reviewing and assessing the statements housed on the BHRRC platform, recognising the value of having a fully transparent platform, but also the enormous amount of time and resources it would take to conduct this analysis. Seventeen workers have reportedly died on World Cup stadium sites in Russia.10. Sinelschikova, Y 2017, ‘Distinguishing faces: What do Russians think about migrants?’. ... Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Russia… At the same time, Turkmenistan, Belarus and Macedonia are recognized as countries with a high prevalence of modern slavery, while Russia, Turkey and Ukraine have the highest absolute figure of 39% of victims in Europe and Central Asia region. ILO reports that labor trafficking is the most predominant form of trafficking in Russia. Web. Mass vaccination against Covid-19 is currently not feasible in 42 Russian regions, according to an independent study. The index documented several incidents of labor exploitation around stadium construction preceding Russia’s World Cup this summer. Kovpak, J 2016, ‘Russia to Reintroduce Forced Labor as Criminal Punishment’. The Global Slavery Index estimates that there were 136,000 people living in modern slavery in the United Kingdom (UK) on any given day in 2016, reflecting a prevalence rate of 2.1 victims for every thousand people in the country. Nearly 800,000 people live as modern-day slaves in Russia, working under conditions of forced labor, debt bondage and human trafficking, according to the 2018 Global Slavery Index, a worldwide analysis of slavery. Higgins, A 2017, ‘North Korean’s in Russia Work ‘Basically in the Situation of Slaves’’. on. The ILO reports that 71 percent of modern-day slaves are female. Burrows, E 2016, ‘How Nigerian girls are forced into prostitution in Russia’. Our exclusives and on-the-ground reporting are being read and shared by many high-profile journalists. Crisis . envoy says Russia-North Korea deportation pact puts refugees at risk’. 7 months ago. Some businesses have subsequently updated and improved their statements, and the updated statement will be included in the next iteration of the research. Internal migrants from Russia’s poorer regions and migrants from the former Soviet satellite states are reportedly trafficked (sometimes involving drugging and kidnapping) and then forced to work against their will in brick factories and small farms in the North Caucasus republic of Dagestan.11 This involves unscrupulous recruiters who target migrants at train stations in major Russian cities. The top five imported products at risk of modern slavery were identified from an original list of 15 products considered at risk of modern slavery. ‘Russia ‘forced marriage’ reporter Milashina flees Chechnya’ 2015. Introduce legislation that requires large businesses to report on their actions taken to eliminate risk of modern slavery in their supply chains. Available from: Knight, K 2017, ‘Gay men in Chechnya are being tortured and killed. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Pub. Modern slavery is a multibillion-dollar industry with just the forced labor aspect generating US $150 billion each year. See https://www.vtbcapital.com/about/information-disclosure/modern-slavery-act-2015/ for more details. Similarly, of the more than US$ 3 billion worth of clothing from various at-risk countries, nearly US$ 2.7 billion come from China. The survey includes questions on underage workers, employee rights and freedoms, use of foreign and migrant workers, due diligence processes, policies and procedures. [CRISIS] Bombshell Report on Modern Slavery in Russia published in New York, Berlin, London. Hodal, K 2017, ‘Slave saviours: the men risking their lives to free brick workers in Dagestan’. However, it is important to acknowledge that global population rates also affect these estimates. Thousands of Russia’s most vulnerable men and women go missing every year. Therefore, there are concerns that prisoners are forced to work for private companies against their will.19 In addition, Russian law allows for compulsory labour to be imposed as a punishment for various activities, including the expression of political or ideological views which are deemed to be ‘extremist’. This statement has been approved by the board of directors of MHIE. Women are disproportionately affected by modern slavery. Around 286,000 people in Ukraine live in modern slavery, according to Global Slavery Index compiled by Australia-based NGO Walk Free Foundation. Victims are lured by promises of jobs, brought to the cities from other Russian provinces or foreign countries and then forced to beg in the streets. Modern slavery in the heart of Europe. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 2017. Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of, https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/11/world/europe/north-korea-russia-migrants.html, https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2375%282017%29, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-northkorea-missiles-russia-sanctions/russia-to-send-home-all-north-korean-migrant-workers-by-2019-ifax-idUSKBN1FJ2RZ. Brands are complicit in the abuse envoy says Russia-North Korea deportation pact refugees... There were 136,000 victims of the criminal code denounce their conditions for fear of or... 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